Orchidarium

The question of a favorable environment for cultivation can be achieved in various ways and in various environments, which makes its cultivation possible even in apartments (this will be discussed in supplementary posting), but for this it is necessary to keep in mind which type of the environment in which orchids like to live.

When we speak of orchids, we speak of more than 35,000 species, apart from the hundreds of thousands of hybrids, which naturally assures us that plants exist in many different environments around the world, but in general we can say that the orchid environment must be humid, with adequate average humidity around 80 to 85% and that adequate shading is required to avoid sun damage and that it needs to be a well ventilated environment without excess winds.

Having all these factors in mind then we can begin to plan how we should make our orchards, which already begins with the choice of the place, being that when possible to choose a place that already meets many of these factors facilitates and greatly reduces the work , but when not possible it is possible to make corrections to improve the environment.

The material to be used is another important thing because when making the orchid the material used needs to be appropriate to meet the requirements of the orchids that it is, to provide the shading and protection, to maintain a higher humidity inside the orchid, to protect the plants from the rain and be resistant to climate phenomena.

Also talking about the materials we can mention as indispensable to the cultivation the shading screen (sombrite or aluminet) that is generally used from 50% to 80% depending on the region and height of the orchid;

the agricultural film or agricultural plastic, indispensable to make the protection of rain, and also helps in the matter of the shadowing and the maintenance of the temperature of the orchid;

screens of protection against entrance of animals, other interesting material for the orchid that can be the own screen of shading, or screen of chicken coop or the use of the two;

support structures that can be wood, metalon, aluminum, masonry or the use of more than 1 of these in the assembly.

As for the type of orquidários exist the old slats of wood, that it is practically no longer recommended its use due to being more rustic constructions and usually they are expensive to use a lot of wood, outside the problem of the durability.

The screen is the most usual type of orchids in existence at the moment.

is the most practical and suitable for cultivation, in addition to having a longer life and maintenance is facilitated.

The screen can be simple only with screen on the cover;

closed with screens on the cover and on the sides and with double cover, the outer cover with the shading screen and the internal cover with the use of agricultural plastic or transparent tile to protect the rain.

It is also possible to use agricultural plastic on the sides as curtain that can be lifted and lowered, aiding in the protection of winds and rains and also in shading.

There are still closed and air-conditioned greenhouses, which are expensive buildings, usually made by specialized firms that normally only compensate for large enterprises,

orchidarium

example of covered roof on the sides with double cover, the external with shading screen and the internal with agricultural film.

Another important consideration and when possible is the positioning of the orchid on the ground that should always be with its smaller sides facing the south and north faces so that one has a better use of the sunlight that in this way will walk alike through every orchid without some plants make a shadow over the others or that this effect is minimal, but as often this is not possible, either because of lack of space or because of winds there, then if it is the case of wind, avoid placing the larger sides of the orquidário facing the direction of the strongest prevailing winds in the region.

In general in southern and southeastern coastal regions of Brazil that is influenced by the climate of the cold fronts the southwest and south wind are the main usual strong winds.

In order to know all these factors, it is time to plan the orchid garden.

The important thing at this stage is to keep in mind what you are willing to do, the measures, the material, how much it will cost and how much you are willing or able to pay for the construction.

The most important thing for this is to think that the construction does not have to be exquisite full of frills, but functional and the question of aesthetics when possible should be increased, but the main thing is to be functional and serve the intended purpose.

all planning begins with much observation of the climate sites and the idea of ​​what one intends to do and how and then taking action and asking for help if necessary to sketch it out on paper.

Outlined drawings are a welcome help that helps a lot at the time of construction,

As an example of planning I place here the design of my own orchard that was very important to avoid problems and to have a sense of what I needed with correct measures.

After planning and deciding how it is going to be done, it is very important to choose the professional who will do the work or the professionals, for example, anyone who uses wood should keep in mind that the person who will do it needs to work as well as wood to avoid future damages that made the work more expensive.

in relation to the other materials the same thing and as the placement of screens and agricultural film that is the most important point the person has to know how to put to avoid problems.

Usually the biggest problems happen in this part with the placement of the agricultural film and sombrite, because they are not normally stretched and fixed and so with rain and time they will give way and belly accumulating water and finally ripping.

These materials to fulfill their functions must be fully stretched to their maximum possible and fixed so that they do not give away over time.

There are several ways for this such as wooden stapler for wood case, bolts with slats securing the plastic in the firm structure, a piece called spring profile and other ways, but the fact is that they have to be at the maximum stretched as possible.

Having all these things in mind is then time to build and to build it is interesting to have some aspects in mind that make a orchid garden functional.

Foundation: because it is a light structure of little importance in relation to weight, the foundations can be simple with the simple burial of the columns to a certain depth to guarantee good firmness and to avoid problems with wind, or it can also be if the region is more subject to Winds concrete this foundation to give more security and stability.

Usually a recommended depth is 50cm deep that ensures good support.

Support: Basically they are columns and crawling which is like a structure to receive a very light roof, ie it is a relatively simple structure.

Stabilization: it is crucial to use the mooring strap, in these examples made of wood even though it is what binds all the columns and the crawl between them making everything a single thing and thus stabilizing the construction.

it is important when possible to also tie the columns to the base with baldrays if possible, small masonry wall or even wood, being more practical or the concrete beam or the wall when possible, being advisable in regions with more winds.

coverage: made all structural part is time to make the cover and for a functional orchid double coverage is the most indicated.

This type of cover comprises of an outer cover which is made with the shading screen sombrite or aluminet, generally with a percentage of 50% to 70%, most indicated being 50% when using agricultural film.

The inner cover corresponds to the cover with agricultural film or transparent tile with the function of protection against the rain and aid in the shadowing also.

Now the question is what is the reason for the screen on top and plastic on the bottom and not the other way around.

Would not it be the same?

The answer is no and a simple reason to understand explains this.

The shading screen whatever it has shading function and consequently it either absorbs heat, such as sombrite, or reflects heat,

like aluminet which is beneficial because it arrives less heat to the agricultural film or tile, what greatly increases its useful life, besides that when heavy rains occur, mainly hailstones if in case the film or the tile are on top the plastic or the tile can be damaged, however well placed and shading screens are more resistant to hailstones falling off.

There is a video that I put in this blog that shows exactly this in a hail storm that fell and I filmed falling in the orchard.

however much they are placed correctly and already the shading screens are more resistant to the falling of the ice rocks of the hail.

There is a video that I put in this blog that shows exactly this in a hail storm that fell and I filmed falling in the orchard.

however much they are placed correctly and already the shading screens are more resistant to the falling of the ice rocks of the hail.

orchidarium

This set of double coverage besides protecting the rain and providing the shading they promote a certain maintenance of the temperature, avoiding that the orchid warms too much in the period of summer and that it cools too much in the period of the winter, besides also to provide a good and better maintenance control of humidity levels, but for this system to work properly and not to promote the inverse effect it is recommended that there is a distance between the two covers of at least 30cm, the most recommended being between 50cm.

Orchid height: In general, the recommended minimum height is 2.5m in height, however depending on the region it can be varied due to temperature.

In warmer regions with warmer winters with few cold periods the ideal orchid is best for better ventilation and better temperature maintenance, while in mild summer and very harsh winters, in general lower orchids are the best to avoid excess of cold.

Lateral: the sides can be opened, or covered, and the coverings are generally more suitable for protection against entry of larger animals and protection of excess winds, besides being an aid in the shading of the orchid, being that for these lateral you can use a weaker shading screen such as 18%, 30% or other material and the use of metal screens together can aid in protection if possible.

Ground: The orchid floor is another important part and should receive greater care, as it will be the main component for maintaining adequate moisture inside the orchid. In general, the ground must be well drained to avoid flooding, but at the same time it must retain water so that it does not flood and that it evaporates continuously and slowly only by draining the excess. In general, this soil is obtained by using gravel instead of zero and 1. However, it is not enough to only throw gravel on the ground, because in a short time the weeds would take over and the gravel would mix with the soil and in time it would be washed away . In general this ground starts with good leveling and a landfill for a small increase of the ground level in relation to the rest. sand is very useful for this purpose. Between this landfill one can install drainage pipes with pvc pipe, especially in places of the terrain subject to floods, to avoid that in the first flood it takes away the floor of the orchard. Next it is advisable the use of the black plastic tarpaulin that inhibits the growth of the bush and the mixture of crushed stone with the earth. This canvas should be drilled at various points for slow drainage of excess water. Then a good layer of crushed stone is laid down until the ground is covered with a good layer without the plastic appearing. Besides giving a good aesthetic greatly reduces the problem of the bush and it fulfills its function of maintaining the humidity of the air inside the orchard. Next it is advisable the use of the black plastic tarpaulin that inhibits the growth of the bush and the mixture of crushed stone with the earth. This canvas should be drilled at various points for slow drainage of excess water. Then a good layer of crushed stone is laid down until the ground is covered with a good layer without the plastic appearing. Besides giving a good aesthetic greatly reduces the problem of the bush and it fulfills its function of maintaining the humidity of the air inside the orchard. Next it is advisable the use of the black plastic tarpaulin that inhibits the growth of the bush and the mixture of crushed stone with the earth. This canvas should be drilled at various points for slow drainage of excess water. Then a good layer of crushed stone is laid down until the ground is covered with a good layer without the plastic appearing. Besides giving a good aesthetic greatly reduces the problem of the bush and it fulfills its function of maintaining the humidity of the air inside the orchard.

disinfestation: it is important when you are in the stage of doing the ground and final to do a disinfestation of the place, being able to use the sanitary water spraying in all the stages of assembly of the ground to guarantee a disease-free environment for the orchids.
understanding these processes and aspects of the stages of the orchid building is enough to follow the work well, helping if possible and then enjoying the favorable and functional environment that certainly orchids thanked with satisfactory development and beautiful flowers. Now for those who do not have space or conditions to make orchids, but have balconies, verandas, terraces covered with roofs, garages and windows do not worry, because it is possible also the cultivation of orchids, however these are environments that have a very special dynamic , but that will be discussed in detail in the next post that will complement these people.

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