Parts Of A Plant

Parts Of A Plant

We live in a fascinating world, full of animal life and, above all, vegetable. Plants have been on Earth for many millions of years, to be more or less exact, it is estimated that they began their evolution about 1,600 million years ago. Since then, and as the Earth was having its current configuration, have been developed to adapt to the various conditions that were presented .

Thus, each one of the parts of the plants has been perfected more and more. But what are these parts? What function do they have?

Plants, unlike animals, once the seed germinates in a place there is going to stay for the rest of its life. In spite of this, they do something that none of us is capable of doing: trans-forming the energy of the sun into food. In doing so, they absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen (O2) in a process called photosynthesis. That’s why the first part we’re going to see is the root.


The roots fix the plants to the ground, but, in reality, they have other functions besides this one. In the earth there are various nutrients and minerals that, when it rains, are dissolved. The roots absorb them through the absorbent hairs so that the aerial part, that is, the stem and the leaves, can stay healthy and grow.

There are several parts:

  • Neck : is the part that connects the stem with the root.
  • Suberified or branching zone: is the area between the neck and the piliferous zone. This is where the secondary roots come from.
  • Pelliferous zone or of absorbent hairs : it is the zone that is between the suberified zone and the zone of growth. It is covered with hairs that absorb water and minerals dissolved in it.
  • Zone of growth or cell division : it is the zone located between the piliferous zone and the cap. This is where the growth of the root comes from.
  • Coif : is a cap that protects the tip of the root when it is introduced into the interior of the earth.


The stem is a very important part for plants. Its interior is full of life. Water with its minerals, known as crude sap, travels from roots to leaves through really thin tubes called woody vessels. When it reaches the leaves, it mixes with the carbon dioxide that the leaves have taken from the air and turns into elaborate sap , which is the plant’s food.

The elaborated sap travels from the leaves to the roots, thus getting all the parts to feed.

There are three main parts:

  • Neck : is the union of the root with the stem.
  • Knot : leaves and branches emerge from them.
  • Buds : they give origin to the branches.



The leaves are the plant’s food factory . Thanks to them, they can breathe, absorbing oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide; Perform the photosynthesis that we have already mentioned, and they can also transpire, which consists in expelling excess water through the stomata.

There are many shapes and sizes, they can even change color throughout the year. In turn, they can be perennial , that is, they fall as new ones emerge every few months or every X years,  or expire , which are those that fall in any given season of the year (summer or winter).

There are several parts:

  • Limbo : the part is more or less flat. It has two faces: the upper is the beam and the reverse is the reverse.
  • Petiole : is the filament that connects the leaf to the stem or branch.
  • Pod : it is the broadening of the petiole or limb that surrounds the stem.


The flowers are incredible structures. Thanks to them, plants can multiply year after year, thus perpetuating the species. They are formed by different parts:

  • Floral peduncle : joins the flower with the stem.
  • Floral wrap : is a set of leaves that protect the reproductive organs. It is made up:
    • Chalice: is formed by little green daughters called sepals that are on the outside of the flower.
    • Corolla: is the flower itself. It is formed by leaves that can be of different colors that have the function of attracting pollinators.
  • Reproductive organs :
    • Stamens: they are rods that are in the center of the flower and that store the pollen. It is the male organ of the flower.
    • Filament: it is a very thin stem that holds the anther, which is a kind of bag where the pollen is.
    • Pistils: are formed by the ovary, which is where the ovules are; the style that is a kind of small tube that connects the ovary with the stigma, and the stigma. It is the female organ of the flower.


The fruit is the fertilized ovary . Inside is one or several seeds. You can finish your development in a few weeks or, sometimes, in two years, like the pines. It can be fleshy or dry.



The seed is essential for the plants since with them they can perpetuate their genes . There are many types: winged, smaller than the head of a pin, the size of a tennis ball … In order to germinate, it is important that the conditions are appropriate for each species. So, if for example, it comes from a place where winter is very cold, it will be necessary for the temperatures to be low so that they can sprout.

Did you know the parts of the plants and their function?Do you know what you can plant in winter?

Don Burke

I am Don Burke, one of the authors at My Garden Guide.  I am a horticulturist that cultivates, grows, and cares for plants, ranging from shrubs and fruits to flowers. I do it in my own garden and in my nursery. I show you how to take care of your garden and how to perform garden landscaping in an easy way, step by step.I am originally from Sydney and I wrote in local magazines. Later on, I have decided, more than two decades ago, to create my own blog. My area of specialization is related to orchid care, succulent care, and the study of the substrate and the soil. Therefore, you will see many articles dedicated to these disciplines. I also provide advice about how to improve the landscape design of your garden.

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